Kriyaa Hi Vastoopahutaa Praseedati

Concepts, Infomaterials

Types of Biotechnology and its applications

DNA research background

Biotechnology is defined as the industrial application of living organisms and their biological processes such as biochemistry, microbiology, and genetic engineering, to make the best use of the microorganisms for the benefit of mankind.

Different types of biotechnology

Green biotechnology:  Green biotechnology is defined as the application of biological techniques to plants to improve the nutritional quality, quantity and production economics. It is done by implanting foreign genes to plant economically important species. This contains three main areas: plant tissue culture; plant genetic engineering and plant molecular marker-assisted breeding.

Red biotechnology: Red biotechnology is concerned with the discovery and development of innovative drugs and treatments. A key prerequisite was an increasing understanding of how proteins function, their roles in communication between and within cells, and the diseases caused when these proteins malfunction.  This includes Gene Therapy, Stem Cells, Genetic Testing, etc.

White biotechnology: This field of biotechnology is connected with the industry. White biotech uses molds, yeasts, bacteria, and enzymes to produce goods and services or parts of products. It offers a wide range of bio-products like detergents, vitamins, antibiotics, etc. Most of the white biotech processes result in the saving of water, energy, chemicals and the reduction of waste compared to traditional methods.

Blue biotechnology: Blue biotechnology is concerned with the application of molecular biological methods to marine and freshwater organisms. It involves the use of these organisms, and their derivatives, for multiple purposes, the most remarkable are the identification process and development of new active ingredients from marine origin.

Yellow biotechnology: Yellow biotechnology’ refers to biotechnology with insects — analogous to the green (plants) and red (animals) biotechnology. Active ingredients or genes in insects are characterized and used for research or application in agriculture and medicine.

Applications

Biopharmaceuticals: The drugs are being developed with the use of microorganisms without using any synthetic materials and chemicals. Large molecules of proteins are usually the source of biopharmaceutical drugs. They when targeted in the body attack the hidden mechanisms of the diseases and destroy them without any side effect(s). Now scientists are trying to develop such biopharmaceutical drugs that can be treated against diseases like hepatitis, cancer and heart diseases.

Gene therapy: It is used in delicacy and diagnoses of diseases like cancer and Parkinson’s. The apparatus of this technique is that the fit genes are under attack in the body which either obliterate the injured cells or replace them. In some cases, the fit genes make corrections in the genetic information and that is how the genes start performance in the favor of the body.

Flowers: There is extra to agricultural biotechnology than just hostility disease or civilizing food quality. There is some simply aesthetic application and an example of this is the use of gene recognition and transfer techniques to improve the color, smell, size and other features of flowers.

Plant and Animal Reproduction: Enhancing plant and animal behavior by traditional methods like cross-pollination, grafting, and cross-breeding is time-consuming. Biotech advance let for specific changes to be made rapidly, on a molecular level through over-expression or removal of genes, or the introduction of foreign genes.

Food processing : is a process by which non-palatable and easily perishable raw materials are converted to edible and potable foods and beverages, which have a longer shelf life. The method, by which the microbial organisms and their derivatives are used to increase the edibility and the shelf life of foods, is known as fermentation.

Bioremediation: The process of cleaning up the hazardous substances into non-toxic compounds is called the Bioremediation process. This process is majorly used for any kind of technology clean up that uses the natural microorganisms.

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