British Supremacy in India created certain forces as a result of its direct and indirect consequences which eventually challenged the British imperialism. One important effect of the initiation of western culture in India was the growth of modern political concepts like nationalism, nationality, political rights etc. The Indian sub-continent witnessed the growth of political ideas and political organisation hitherto unknown to the Indian World. This was the reason why political associations heralded 19th century modern politics into India.
Several public associations were beginning. In 1866, Dadabhai Naoroji organised the East India Association to discuss the Indian question and to influence British to promote Indian welfare. Later, he organised branches of the Association, in prominent Indian cities.
Bangbhasha Prakasika Sabha
Founded in 1836, it was first organized political association of India. It worked for reform of administrative association of Indians with the British, spread of education, putting forward Indian demands to the British parliament. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was pioneer in political movement in India. The ‘Sabha’ was established by associates of Raja Rammohan Roy.
British India Society
British India Society was founded in 1839 in England with efforts of William Adam who was a friend or Raja Rammohan Roy. The Society organised meeting at several place to create awareness of the condition in India. In 1841, the society started a newspaper “British Indian Advocate.”
Bengal British India Society
With efforts of George Thomson, along with Dwarkanath Tagore, Chandra Mohan Chatterjee and Parmananda Maitra; ‘Bengal British Society was founded on 20th April 1843. The idea behind this set-up was to secure the welfare and advancement of all classes in loyalty to the government of the reigning sovereign of the British dominions.
East India Association
This organisation was established by “The grand old man” of Indian National Movement Dadabhai Naoroji. It was a platform for discussing matters and ideas about India, and to provide representation for discussing matters and ideas about India and to provide representation for the Indians to the Government. Naoroji delivered first lecture to the association on 2nd may 1867. The ‘Associations’’ first president was Lord Lyveden.
Founder editor of “Amrit Bazaar Patrika”, Sisir Kumar Ghose, along with a few progressive leaders of the time, founded the “India League” in year 1875 in Calcutta. The basic aim of the ‘League’ was to represent masses and to stimulate a sense of nationalism among the people. Later, the ‘League’ was superseded by the “India Association”, founded in year 1876 with active participation from Anand Mohan Bose, and S.N. Banerjee. ‘Indian Association’ raised voice against issues like age limit for ICS examination and opposed ‘Ilbert Bill’.
Poona Sarvjanik Sabha
On 2nd April, 1870 Poona Sarvajanik Sabha was founded by M.G. Ranade and G.V. Joshi. The ‘Sabha’ provided many prominent leaders of national stature like ‘Bal Gangadhar Tilak’. It aimed to serve as a mediating body between British Government and people of India. In 1875, “Sabha’ submitted a petition to the ‘House of Commons’ to demand India’s representation in British Parliament.
Madras Mahajan Sabha
It was established by S. Ramaswami Mudaliar and P. Anandacharlu in year 1884 in Madras. The Sabha in collaboration with ‘Bombay Presidency Association’ and the ‘Indian Assocation’ sent a delegation to England.
- Module-3 Modern India by NIOS
- Modern India by Bipin Chandra
- Class-12 Tamil Nadu State Board History Book