Ranthambore Tiger Reserve

Context

A Statewide alert against poaching has been issued after camera traps in and around the Ranthambore Tiger Reserve captured images of a tiger with a hunting snare-like wire noose coiled around its neck. State forest department officials said the tiger,T-108, was tranquilised and the wire removed on Saturday. The department has ordered an inquiry into the issue.

About Ranthambore Tiger Reserve

  • Ranthambore Tiger Reserve lies in the eastern part of Rajasthan state in Karauli and Sawai Madhopur districts, at the junction of the Aravali and the Vindhya hill ranges.
  • It comprises of the Ranthambore National Park as well as Sawai Mansingh and Keladevi Sanctuaries, each with varied conservation history.
  • Geographically, narrow corridors link the two sanctuaries to the reserve’s core– the National Park.
  • This isolated area with tigers in it represents the north-western limit of the Bengal tiger’s distribution range and is an outstanding example of Project Tiger’s efforts for conservation in the country. 
  • National Park area: 275 km² core area. 392 km² including buffer zone
  • Tiger Reserve area: 334 km². Today it covers an area of 1334 km2.
  • Elevation: 215 to 505 meters above sea level.
  • Terrain: Dense tropical dry forest, open bushland and rocky terrain interspersed with lakes and streams.
  • Ecoregion: Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests.

History of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve

  • The Mughal Emperor , Akbar invested it in 1569 the year after he took the fort at Chittor and conquered it in 40 days of warfare . The event was important enough to be commemorated with five magnificent miniatures paintings by the emperors renowned artist Miskina , Paras, khem Karan , Mukund , Shankar , and lal , in the emperial copy of Abul Faazl,s Akbar Nama the official chronicle of Akbar reign.
  • The Kachawas rulers of the principality of Amer later know as the Jaipur State received the Ranthambore Tiger Reserve fort from Mughal and it remained with them till 1949 When Jaipur state was merged in to Rajasthan.
  • The forest around the fort know by the name of nearby town ship of Sawai Madhopur were the private hunting ground of maharajas of Jaipur Among the most famous of their hunting parties was organized for queen Elizabeth 2 and the Duke of Edinburg in1961 it was thanks to the desire to preserve game for sport that the forest and inhabitants first received protection and thus survived long enough to be rescued by Project Tiger.
  • In 1972 it was estimated that there were 1827 tigers in India of which Rajasthan had 74 and the number of tigers estimated in the Ranthambore National Park 60 Sq miles was 14 that year saw the launching of projects Tiger and this sanctuaries has become a national parks of the new projects
  • Over the year the sanctuary has become a national park with a core area 158 SQ miles with a tiger population of 40 according to the 1986 census In 1984 an additional area of 40 SQ miles of adjoining forest was designated the Sawai Man Singh Sanctuary after the late maharaja of Jaipur.

Tiger Census in India

  • Every 4 years the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) conducts a tiger census across India.
  • The first was conducted in 2006, followed by 2010 and in 2014.
  • The Census (2014) had reported 2,226 tigers in the country, up from 1,706 in 2010.
  • The fourth tiger census (All India Tiger Estimation 2018-19) released in May 2019.

Importance of Fourth Tiger Census 2018

  • This 2018 tiger census uses more technology including a mobile app named “MSTrIPES” for the very first time to store information of the counting.
  • Another primary focus of the tiger census 2018 is to cover the northeast India that was not included in the previous census.
  • For the very first time three neighbouring countries Bhutan, Nepal and Bangladesh are helping in counting the number of tigers all across India, especially in the region with mutual borders.

Fourth cycle of All India Tiger Estimation – 2018

  • Top Performers: Madhya Pradesh saw the highest number of tigers (526) followed by Karnataka (524) and Uttarakhand (442).
    • Increase in Tiger population: Madhya Pradesh (71%) > Maharashtra (64%) > Karnataka (29%).
  • Worst Performers: Chhattisgarh and Mizoram saw a decline in tiger population.
    • Chhattisgarh is the only state out of the 20 tiger-bearing states where the 2018- census counted 19 tigers, significantly fewer than the 46 of 2014.
    • Decline in Tiger numbers in Chhattisgarh can be attributed to the law and order problem as large parts of the state are hit by the Maoist insurgency.
    • Greater conservation efforts are needed in the “critically vulnerable” Northeast hills and Odisha.
  • Tiger Sanctuaries: An evaluation of India’s 50 tiger sanctuaries was also released along with the 4th National Tiger Estimation (Tiger census).
    • Madhya Pradesh’s Pench Sanctuary and Kerala’s Periyar sanctuary emerged as the best-managed tiger reserves in the country.
    • Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu registered the “maximum improvement” since 2014.
    • The Dampa and Rajaji reserves, in Mizoram and Uttarakhand respectively are at the bottom of the list in terms of Tiger count.
    • No tiger has been found in the Buxa (West Bengal), Palamau (Jharkhand) and Dampa (Mizoram) reserves.

National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)

  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority is a statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change constituted under enabling provisions of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, as amended in 2006, for strengthening tiger conservation, as per powers and functions assigned to it under the said Act.
  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority has been fulfilling its mandate within the ambit of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 for strengthening tiger conservation in the country by retaining an oversight through advisories/normative guidelines, based on appraisal of tiger status, ongoing conservation initiatives and recommendations of specially constituted Committees.
  • ‘Project Tiger’ is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change, providing funding support to tiger range States for in-situ conservation of tigers in designated tiger reserves, and has put the endangered tiger on an assured path of recovery by saving it from extinction, as revealed by the recent findings of the All India tiger estimation using the refined methodology.

Project Tiger

  • The Government of India has taken a pioneering initiative for conserving its national animal, the tiger, by launching the “Project Tiger” in 1973. From 9 tiger reserves since its formative years, the Project Tiger coverage has increased to 50 at present, spread out in 18 of our tiger range states. This amounts to around 2.21% of the geographical area of our country.
  • The tiger reserves are constituted on a core/buffer strategy. The core areas have the legal status of a national park or a sanctuary, whereas the buffer or peripheral areas are a mix of forest and non-forest land, managed as a multiple use area. The Project Tiger aims to foster an exclusive tiger agenda in the core areas of tiger reserves, with an inclusive people oriented agenda in the buffer.
  • Project Tiger is an ongoing Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change providing central assistance to the tiger States for tiger conservation in designated tiger reserves.
  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) is a statutory body of the Ministry, with an overarching supervisory / coordination role, performing functions as provided in the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • The ADG (Project Tiger) and his officers also service the NTCA. The Regional Offices of the NTCA have been recently established at Bengaluru, Guwahati and Nagpur, each headed by an IGF and assisted by an AIG.

List of Tiger Reserves

This page contains list of all the tiger reserves along with the details like year of declaration, state in which the tiger reserve is located, area of both core and buffer of tiger reserve and the gazette notification of the tiger reserve. A brief note on select tiger reserves can be downloaded by clicking tiger reserve name.

For viewing the brief note and tiger reserve notification, pdf reader is required.

Sl NoTiger Reserve (TR)PA Notificn YearStateTR Notifcn Year
1Bandipur1973-74Karnataka2007
2Corbett1973-74Uttarakhand2010
Amanagarh bufferUttar Pradesh2012
3Kanha1973-74Madhya Pradesh2007
4Manas1973-74Assam2008
5Melghat1973-74Maharashtra2007
6Palamau1973-74Jharkhand2012
7Ranthambore1973-74Rajasthan2007
8Simlipal1973-74Orissa
9Sunderban1973-74West Bengal2007
10Periyar1978-79Kerala2007
11Sariska1978-79Rajasthan2007
12Buxa1982-83West Bengal
13Indravati1982-83Chattisgarh2009
14Namdapha1982-83Arunachal Pradesh
15Nagarjunsagar Sagar1982-83Andhra Pradesh
16Dudhwa1987-88Uttar Pradesh2010
17Kalakad Mundanthurai1988-89Tamil Nadu2007
18Valmiki1989-90Bihar2012
19Pench1992-93Madhy Pradesh2007
20Tadobha Andhari1993-94Maharashtra2007
21Bandhavgarh1993-94Madhy Pradesh2007
22Panna1993-94Madhy Pradesh2007
23Dampa1994-95Mizoram2007
24Bhadra1998-99Karnataka2007
25Pench – MH1998-99Maharashtra2007
26Pakke1999-20Arunachal Pradesh2012
27Nameri1999-20Assam2000
28Satpura1999-20Madhya Pradesh2007
29AnamalaiTamil Nadu2007
30Udanti SitanadiChattisgarh2009
31SatkoshiaOdisha
32Kaziranga1974Assam2007
33AchanakmarChattisgarh2009
34KaliKarnataka2007
35Sanjay DhubriMadhya Pradesh2011
36MudumalaiTamil Nadu2007
37NagarholeKarnataka2007
38ParambikulamKerala2009
39SahyadriMaharashtra2012
40Biligiri Ranganatha TempleKarnataka
41KawalTelangana2012
42SathyamangalamTamil Nadu2013
43MukundaraRajasthan
44Nawegaon NagziraMaharashtra2013
45AmrabadTelangana
46PilibhitUttar Pradesh2014
47BorMaharashtra
48RajajiUttarakhand2015
49OrangAssam2016
50KamlangArunachal Pradesh2016

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