Points to Remember: Development of Education

Warrent Hastings set up a madrasa in Calcutta in 1781.

Under-construction Mumbai University

Jonathan Duncan laid the foundation-stone of Sanskrit College in Banaras in 1791.

The Charter Act of 1813, for the first time acknowledged state responsibility for the promotion of education in India.

A general Committee of Public Institution was set up in 1823 to look after the development of education in India.

In Uttar Pradesh, the first English-medium college, was founded at Agra in 1823.

Lord William Bentinck made English the court language replacing Persian.

The Universities at Calcutta, Bomaby and Madras were established under the Wood’s Despatch, 1854.

Hindu College, later Presidency College, was established by David hare in Calcutta.

Macaulay’s education policy was laid down in 1835.

In 1841, the General Committee of Public Instruction was replaced by Council of Education.

Sir Charles Wood, famous for the 1854 education despatch, was the president of Board of Control in 1854.

The Wood’s Despatch is called the magna carta of education in India.

The Hunter Commission (1882) mostly confined its remarks to secondary and primary education. For secondary education, it suggested two divisions: Formal and Commercial and vocational.

A secret education conference was held under Lord Curzon at Simla in 1901.

In 1902, Lord Curzon appointed a commission on education under Thomas Raleigh. The Raleigh Commission’s recommendations became the basis of the Indian Universities Act, 1904.

Though Curzon justified the official control on universities in the name of quality and efficiency, it was basically meant to restrict education and discipline educated Indian minds towards loyality to the government.

The Princely state of Baroda made elementary education compulsory in 1906.

The Department of Education was set up by the government in 1910, and the provision for an Education Member in the Governor-General in Council was abolished in 1911.

In 1913, the British Government accepted its responsibility to eradicate illiteracy and established a University in every Province.

Patna university (1917), Osmania university (1918) and Aligarh Muslim University (1920) were established on the recommendation of the Sadler Commission in 1917.

Dr Asutosh Mukherjee and Dr Niyauddin Ahmed were two Indian members in the Sadler Commission.

The Sadler Commission advised for the 19+2+3 pattern of education.

Education became a transferred subject under the Government of India Act, 1919 (based on the Montagu-Chlemsford reforms). It meant that the control of the education was put in the hands of popularty elected state legislatures.

The Hartog Committee (1929) recommended a selective system for admission in secondary schools.

In 1937, Mahatma Gandhi proposed a scheme of education, called the Wardha Scheme or the basic education scheme. The details of the scheme were worked out by the Zakir Hussain Committee. The Wardha scheme, centered around the policies of manual productive work and learning through activity.

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