(Non-chordata and chordata)

UNIT – I – Non-chordata:
General features : General organization and classification if invertebrates (up to order); Origin of metazoa; Origin of coelomacoelomata, pseudocoelomata and eucoelomata, protostomes and deuterostomes; Symmetry in animals. Protozoa : Locomotion, nutrition and reproduction in protozoa; Parasitic protozoa; Life history of Paramaecium, Monocystis, Plasmodium and Trypanosoma. Porifera : Canal system; Skeleton; Reproduction in sponges. Coelenterata : Polymorphism in coelenterata; Coral and coral reefs; structure and life history of Obelia and Aurelia. Helminthes : Structure and life history of Fasciola, Taenia and Ascaris; Parasitic adaptations.
UNIT – II – Non chordata
Annelida : Metamerism; Coelom; Segmental organs; Structure and life history of Nereis, earthworm and leech; Excretory and nervous system of annelida. Arthropoda : Structure and affinities of Peripatus; Structure and life history of Palaemon, scorpion and cockroach; Larval forms and parasitism in crustacea; Vision in insecta; Respiration in arthropoda; Mouth parts of insects. Mollusca : Foot and respiration in mollusca; Torsion and detorsion in gastropoda; Structure and life history of Pila, Sepia, Unio. Echinodermata :Water vascular system; Larval forms and their phylogenetic significance; Life history of Asterias.
UNIT – III Chordata
General features : General organization and classification of chordata up to order; Origin of chordata. Protochordata : Salient features and affinities of protochordate groups (hemichordata, cephalochordata and urochordata). Cyclostomes and Pisces : Structure and affinities of cyclostomes and Dipnoi; Lateral line receptors; Accessory respiratory structures; Scales; Migration in fishes; General features of Scoliodon and Anabas. Amphibia : Origin and evolution of amphibia; Neoteny; Parental care; Structural peculiarities and affinities of Urodela and Apoda.
UNIT – IV – Chordata
Reptiles : Origin of reptiles; Adaptive radiation; Skull types; Poisonous and nonpoisonous snakes of India; Mechanism of snake bite; Venom composition and mode of action; Sphenodon. Aves : Origin of birds; Flight adaptation; Migration; Palate; Flightless birds. Mammals : Origin of mammals; Dentition; Aquatic mammals; Prototheria and Metatheria. Comparative anatomy : Origin and evolution of aortic arches, heart, brain, kidney, skin and endocrine glands (Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and gonads) in different vertebrate groups.

Section – B
(Ecology, Ethology, Bio-statistics and Economic Zoology)

UNIT – I Ecology : Concept and components of ecosystem (energy flow, food chain, food web, ecological pyramids and productivity); Abiotic factors (soil, light and temperature); Biotic factors; Biogeochemical cycles (carbon, nitrogen and sulphur); Ecological niche; Biotic community; Concept of population, Ecological succession; Pollution of air, water and soil, Global warming; Ozone layer depletion; Acid rain.Biodiversity : Types of biodiversity (á, â and ã); Mega biodiversity countries; Biodiversity indices; Key stone species; Biodiversity conservation (in situ and ex situ); Germplasm conservation; Intellectual property rights and patents; Biodiversity hot spots in India; Resource management; Wildlife and its management; Endangered species; Wildlife in Odisha.
UNIT – II Ethology : Concept and method of studying animal behavior; Role of hypothalamus, hormones and pheromones in regulation of behavior; Physiological basis of behavior; Types and Mechanism of learning; Biochemical basis of memory; Social behavior in insects and primates; Biological clock; Courtship, mating and parental care; Orientation; Navigation; Homing and migration; Tidal, seasonal and circadian systems.
UNIT – III Economic Zoology : Apiculture; Sericulture; Lac culture; Induced breeding and carp culture; Pearl culture; Fresh water prawn culture; Insect and rodent pests of crops and stored grains and their control; Major infectious and communicable diseases ( malaria, tuberculosis, cholera, plague, AIDS), their vectors, pathogens and prevention; Helminth parasites in man.
UNIT – IV Bio-statistics : Methods of sampling; Graphical representation of data; Measurement of central tendency; Standard deviation; Standard error; Probability distributions (Binomial, Poisson and Normal); Null hypothesis; Tests of significance (x2-, t- and Ftest); Simple correlation; Regression. Instrumentation : Basic principles and applications of light microscope and electron microscope (TEM and SEM) Electrophoresis; Chromatography; Colorimetry; Autoradiography, Flame photometry, G.M. counter, Scintillation counter; Immuno electrophoresis and Immunoblotting.


Section – A

UNIT – I Cell Biology : Ultra structure of animal cell; Cell cycle; Ultra structure and function of cell organelles (plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, lysosome and nucleus); Organisation of eukaryotic chromosomes; Cell division- mitosis and meiosis; Spindle and mitotic apparatus; Chromosome movement; Cancer cells.
UNIT – II Genetics : Gene structure and function; Watson-Crick model; DNA replication; Mechanism of gene regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Types of RNA; Genetic code and Wobble hypothesis; Protein synthesis; Molecular basis of mutation; Mendel’s laws of inheritance; Linkage and linkage maps; Crossing over; Sex chromosomes; Sex determination, Sex-linked inheritance; Structural rearrangements; Interaction of genes; Multiple factor inheritance; Human genetics- normal and abnormal karyotypes; Genes and diseases.
UNIT – III Evolution : Origin of life; Evidences and theories of organic evolution (Darwinism, Lamarckism); Natural selection; Synthetic theory of Evolution; Hardy-Weinberg law; Genetic drift; Mimicry, Role of mutation and isolation in evolution; Fossilization and dating of fossils; Evolution of horse, elephant and camel; Ancestry of man. Systematics : Species concept; Principles of classification; Biological nomenclature; International code of Zoological Nomenclature(ICZN); Importance of anatomy, cytology, biochemistry and physiology in taxonomy; Molecular taxonomy and Numerical taxonomy; Theories of distribution of animals; Zoogeographical realms of the world.
UNIT – IV Molecular Biology and Biotechnology : Recombinant DNA, Restriction endonucleases, cloning technology : Plasmids, cosmids and Phagemids as cloning vectors; c-DNA; DNA sequencing, RAPD, RFLP analysis and Human genome project; Polymerase chain reaction and DNA fingerprinting; Signal transduction. Biotechnology in the Welfare of human race; Gene library; Production of transgenic animals and genetically modified organisms; Application of biotechnology in medicine, waste management and food production; Industrial biotechnology and production of biopharmaceuticals; Gene therapy and new age medicines.

Section – B

UNIT – I Biochemistry : Structure of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids; Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids; Cholesterol; Glycolysis; Krebs cycle; Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation; Cyclic AMP, its structure and role; Classification of enzymes, enzyme action and kinetics; Vitamins; Coenzymes; Membrane structure and function, pH and buffers, Henderson-Hasselbach equation; Thermodynamics and living processes, ATP and Bioenergetics.
UNIT – II Physiology and Endocrinology : Composition of blood; Pigments of respiration; Blood coagulation; Blood groups; O2 and CO2 transport; Cardiac cycle; Breathing and its regulation; Structure of nephron; Urine formation; Acid-base balance; Structure of neuron; Conduction of impulse through the axon and synapse; Neurotransmitters; Mechanism of vision and hearing; Structure and mechanism of contraction of skeletal muscles; Digestion and absorption of principal food stuff; Function of pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, and gonads; Pheromones in insects and mammals; Biosynthesis, regulation of secretion and mechanism of action of steroid and peptide hormones, Hormones of G-I tract; neuropeptides; Physiology of reproduction and artificial insemination; Homeostasis.
UNIT – III Developmental Biology : Ultra structure of gametes; Gametogenesis; Types of eggs; Fertilization; Cleavage; Gastrulation and fate maps of frog and chick; Mammalian placenta and its function. Organizer concept, Organogenesis of central nervous system, heart and kidney in vertebrates; Stem cells and mechanism of differentiation; Morphogenesis and morphogen, Genetic regulation of development; Homeotic genes; ageing, cell death and programmed cell death; Metamorphosis in frog and insects– Cellular, Biochemical and Physiological features; Regeneration; Blastogenesis; in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.
UNIT – IV Microbiology : Structure of prokaryotes, Cellular organization of bacteria; Bacterial cell wall; Classification of bacteria; Bacterial transformation, transduction, conjugation, transfection; Antibiotics and their mode of action; Structure, classification, molecular architecture of virus(TMV, T4 and ë virus); lysogeny and lytic phages; Bacterial and viral diseases. Immunology : Innate and acquired immunity; Antigen antibody interaction; Types of antibody; Primary and secondary immunity, B and T cells, Humoral and cell- mediated immune response; Hypersensitivity, Autoimmunity and auto immune diseases, Transplantation immunology; Vaccines and their preparation; Immunobiology of cancer.