Foundations of Psychology
1. Introduction : Psychology as a Science : Definitions and perspective. Psychology in relation to other social and natural sciences. Use of interdisciplinary approach.
2.Methods of Psychology: Characteristics and components of methods in psychology (induction, deduction and introspection). Observation, Survey, Laboratory and field experiments. Clinical and Case study. Experimental and quasi experimental methods.
3. Research methods and quantitative analysis : Major steps in psychological research (problem statement, hypothesis formulation, research design, sampling, tools of data collection, analysis and interpretation and report writing). Methods of data collection (interview, observation, questionnaire and case study). Application of statistical techniques (t-test, one-way ANOVA, correlation and chi-square tests).
4. Development of Human Behaviour : The nature, origin and development. Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human behaviour. Influence of cultural factors and socialisation. Influence of child rearing practices and its impact on the growth and development of the individual.
5. Attention and perception : Attention – Determinants of attention including set and characteristics of stimulus. Definition and concept of perception, biological and cultural factors in perception. Perceptual organisation-influence of past experiences, Perceptual defence Space and depth perception, size estimation and perceptual readiness.
6. Learning : Concepts and theories of learning (Pavlov, Skinner). The processes of extinction, discrimination and generalisation. Programmed learning, self instructional learning, concepts, types and the schedules of reinforcement. Modelling and social learning, Cognitive view of learning.
7. Memory : Concepts and definition of memory and forgetting, 7+/-2 concept and chunking; Encoding, storage and retrieval. Factors influencing retention and forgetting. Theories of forgetting (Repression, Decay and Interference theories).
8. Thinking and Problem Solving : Concept formation processes. Reasoning and problem solving. Creative thinking and fostering creativity. Information processing. Decision making and judgment.
9. Intelligence and Aptitude : Concept and definition of Intelligence and aptitude, Nature and theories of intelligence. Measurement of Intelligence and aptitude. Concepts and measurement of emotional and multiple intelligence.
10. Motivation and Emotion : Definition and concepts. Theories and physiological basis of motivation and emotion. Measurement of motivation and emotion Motivation and emotion-their effects on behaviour.
11. Personality : Concept and definition of personality. Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches). Measurement of personality (projective tests, self report measures). The Indian approach to Personality. Training for personality development.
12. Language and Communication : Human language-properties, structure and linguistic hierarchy, Language acquisition-predisposition, critical period hypothesis. Theories of language development (Skinner, Chomsky), Process and types of communication. Effective communication and training.
13. Attitudes, Values and Interests : Definitions, concepts of attitudes, values and interests. Formation and maintenance of attitudes. Measurement of attitudes, values and interests. Techniques of attitude change, strategies for fostering values.
14. Recent Trends : Computer application in the Psychological laboratory and psychological testing. Artificial Intelligence. Psychocybernetics. Study of consciousnesssleep-wake schedules; dreams, stimulus deprivation, meditation, hypnotic/drug induced states. Extrasensory perception.
Psychology : Issues and Applications
1. Psychological Measurement of Individual Difference : The nature of individual differences. Characteristics and construction of standardized psychological tests. Types of psychological tests. Use, misuse and limitation of psychological tests. Ethical issues in the use of psychological tests.
2. Well being and Mental Disorders : Concept of health, positive health, well being and ill health. Mental disorders (Anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia and delusional disorders; personality disorders, substance abuse disorders). Causal factors in mental disorders. Factors influencing positive health, well being, life style and quality of life.
3. Therapeutic Approaches : Psychodynamic therapies. Behaviour therapies. Client centered therapy. Cognitive therapies. Indigenous therapies (Yoga, Reiki, Meditation) Biofeedback therapy. Prevention and rehabilitation of the mentally ill.
4. Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour : Personnel selection and training. Use of Psychological tests in the industry. Training and human resource development. Theories of work motivation. Leadership and participatory management. Advertising and marketing.
5. Application of Psychology to Educational Field : Psychological principles underlying effective teaching-learning process.Learning styles. Gifted, retarded, learning disabled and their training. Training for improving memory and better academic achievement. Personality development and value education, Educational, vocational guidance and Career counselling. Use of Psychological tests in educational institutions.
6. Community Psychology : Definition and concept of Community Psychology. Role of community psychologists in social change. Use of small groups in social action. Arousing community consciousness and action for handling social problems. Group decision making and leadership for social change.
7. Rehabilitation Psychology : Primary, secondary and tertiary; prevention programmes role of psychologists. Organising of services for rehabilitation of physically, mentally and socially challenged persons including old persons. Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal behaviours. Rehabilitation of victims of violence. Rehabiliation of HIV/AIDS victims.
8. Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups : The concepts of disadvantaged, deprivation and socially deprived. Social, physical, cultural and economic consequences of disadvantaged and deprived groups. Educating and motivating the disadvantaged towards development.
9. Psychology and the problem of social integration : The concept of social integration. The problem of caste, class, religion and language conflicts and prejudice. Nature and manifestation of prejudice between the ingroup and outgroup. Casual factors of such conflicts and prejudices. Psychological strategies for handling the conflicts and prejudices. Measures to achieve social integration.
10. Application of psychology in Information Technology and Mass media : The present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the role of psychologists. Selection and training of psychology professionals to work in the field of IT and mass media. Multilevel marketing. Impact of TV and fostering value through IT and mass media. Psychological consequences of recent developments in Information Technology.
11. Application of Psychology in the field of Defence : The concept of Military psychology, Aviation psychology and Psychological warfare. Role of Militarypsychologists in the defence. Selection, recruitment and training of personnel. Facilitating the process of adjustment of personnel to military life-Role of Counselling. Devising Psychological tests for defence personnel. Psychological disorders due to war. Human engineering in Defence.
12. Psychology and Economic development : Achievement motivation and economic development. Characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior. Motivating and Training people for entrepreneurship and economic development. Women Entrepreneurs.
13. Application of psychology to environment and related fields : Environmental psychology-effects of noise, pollution and crowding. Population psychologypsychological consequences of population explosion and high population density. Motivating for small family norms. Impact of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of environment.
14. Other applications of psychology : Sports psychology-improving performance of sports personnel, Psychology and understanding of political behaviour. Voting behaviours. Psychology of corruption and strategies to deal with Psychology of terrorism.