OPSC OAS Forestry Syllabus

PAPER – I


PART – “A”

1. Effect of Locality Factors : Climatic factors : Light, temperature, frost, precipitation, dew, humidity, wind; Physiographic factors : altitude, aspect, topography, microclimate, geology and soil, geology and forests, soil conditions; Biotic factors.
2. Forest classification and Distribution : Basis for classification, criteria for delineating forest types in India and Odisha, distribution of forest types, botanical areas : Principal sub-groups, forest types and their distribution : brief description of groups and types, Biodiversity and its preservation, Mangrove forest.
3. Forest Regeneration : Natural regeneration : by vegetative parts, by seeds, ecological requirements for natural regeneration, operations to be carried out for natural regeneration : natural regeneration practice for important species and types:-moist Sal forest, teak forest, bamboo forest, dry deciduous forest, moist deciduous forest, evergreen forest. Artificial regeneration : factors affecting, choice between artificial and natural regeneration, choice of species, choice between sowing and planting, introduction of exotics: procedure for artificial regeneration, seed collection and storage, nursery operation, planting out, maintenance of plantation, Role of in-vitro culture in regeneration.
4. Tending operations and Forest growth : Weeding, cleaning, thinning, thinning types, methods of thinning, factors affecting thinning, thinning in important species, thinning in irregular crops, mixed plantations and coppice crops, improvement felling, girdling, pruning, Climber cutting. Tree growth: height growth. growth in diameter, increment, growth in quality, rate of growth, crop growth.
5. Silviculture of Tree species : Definition, objects of study, relation of silviculture with forestry and its branches, Silviculture of important tree species such as Acacia auriculifomis, Acacia nilotica, Leucaena leucocephala, Sesbania grandiflora, Cassia siamea, Eucalyptus spc., Casuarina equisetifolia, Shorea robusta, Tectona grandis, Dalbergia sissoo. Gmelina arborea Adina cordifolia. Melia azadirachta, Bambusa arundinacea, Dendrocalamus strictus Terminaeia species, Albizia lebbek, Samanea saman Lagerstroemia flosreginae, Salmalia malbarica.

PART – “B”

6. Forest Management system : Systems of forest management: Clear felling system, Uniform shelterwood system, Selection system, Coppice system: Single coppice and Coppice with Standard system and Coppice with reserve system. Choice of silvicultural system: systems of management in important forest types, working plan preparation and monitoring.
7. Production foresty : Site productivity, productivity of Indian forests, components of production forestry, evaluation of industrial and commercial demands, management of natural forests for production objectives, plantation of industrial and commercial wood, captive plantations, socio-industrial plantation. Involvement of corporate sector in plantation forestry.
8. Rotation and yield : Rotation, types of rotation:-physical, silvicultural, technical, rotation of maximum volume production; rotation of important species : teak sal, gambhar, eucalyptus: casuarina, subabul, wattles and bomboo, steps for reducing rotation age. Yield; yield regulation, yield from Indian forests, concept of sustained yield: principle, scope and limitation.
9. Forest protection : Forest degradation :-illicit fellings and encroachment, grazing and lopping, forest fires, shifting cultivation, diversion of forest lands. Silvicultural fellings, plant diseases, insects, pests, plant parasites and aggressive weeds, Protection measures:-control of illicit felling and encroachments, control of grazing and lopping, protection from animals, protection against fires, protection against disease, protection against inseet pests, weed control measures.
10. Forest Influences : Forest and climate:- precipitation, temperature, shelterbelt and windbreak effect, humidity frost, snow fall, evapotranspiration : Forest and soil : organic matter and recycling of nutrients. Soil composition and structure, soil temperature, soil moisture, forest and water table, chemical property of soil, biological properties, Forest and hydrological cycle : Forest and interception, Forest and infiltration, forest and runoff, forest and erosion, forest and flood, forest and water yield, forest and avalanche, forest and animals; forest and biodiversity conservation, forest recreation, forest and population. Plant succession : stages of succession, climax formation. Watershed management and Wasteland development. Carbon sequestration by forest plants; Green house effect, Global warming.


PAPER – II


PART – “A”

1. Forest Development in India : (Post-Independence)-Forest Development in Five- year Plan periods, Land use forest area, forest cover of the country and the State in particular. Environmental conservation : Importance and principles of conservation. Impact of deforestation due to various anthropic activities like mining, construction and developmental projects, forest fire.
2. Forest policy and legislation : Indian Forest Policy of 1894, 1952 and 1988, National Commission on Agriculture 1976) Report on forestry, constitution of Wasteland Development Board, Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Forest laws, necessity and general principles; Indian Forest Act, 1927, Forest Conservation Act, 1980, Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1948; Odisha Forest Act, 1972, Odisha Timber and Other Forest Produce Transit Rules, 1980, Odisha Forest (Grazing of Cattle) Rules, 1980.
3. Forest Economics : Fundamental Principles of forest economics, estimation of demand and supply, assessment and protection of market structure; role of corporate financing; socioeconomic analysis and attributes of forest productivity.
4. Wildlife management : Common game animals and birds, wildlife conservation and management, wildlife management principles, National parks and wildlife sanctuaries, project tiger.
5. Extension Forestry : Agroforestry : concepts, classification, scope and management; Agroforestry systems under different agroecological zones, selection of species and role of multipurpose trees and Non wood Forest products. Food, folder, and fuelwood security, Research and extension needs; farm forestry; social forestry :- objectives, scope and benefits; Joint forest management, Tribology.

PART – “B”

6. Forest Genetics and Tree Improvement : Tree improvement, its peculiarity compared to annual crop breeding objectives; causes and kinds of variability, provenance, seed source and exotics; principles and methods of tree breeding, vegetative propagation (macro & micro); progeny testing, seed production areas, seed orchards (clonal and seedlings) and their management; hybridization, polyploidee and mutation breeding. Importance of genetic resources conservation and preservation of biodiversity.
7. Forest Mensuration : Methods of measuring diameter, girth, height and volume of trees; form factor; Volume estimation of stand, sampling methods, yield calculation, current annual increment, mean annual increment; sample plots; yield and yield tables; scope and objectives of forest inventory; Aerial survey and remote sensing techniques.
8. Forest surveying & Engineering : Different methods of surveying. Leveling, importance of maps in forestry, maps and map reading; Basic principles of forest engineering, building materials and construction. Roads: objects, classification, general principles and construction. Bridges: Objects, general principles, types, simple design and construction of timber bridges.
9. Wood and its utilization : Wood anatomy of conifers and hardwoods, their physical and mechanical properties. Defects of wood, logging and wood extraction; Process of seasoning wood; Production of composite and improved wood, wood based industries. Uses of natural wood and processed wood.
10. Non-wood Forest products : Definition and scope, gums, resin, oleoresins, fibres, flosses, essential oil yielding plants; tannin dye, oilseeds, nuts, canes, bamboo, bidi leaves, medicinal plants, apiary, sericulture, lac and shellac. Collection, processing and disposal of non-wood forest products.


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