Q21. The People were not settled permanently
Q22. Rig Vedas Samhita
- Oldest religious text in the world.
- Composed around 1500 BCE.
- A collection of hymns, were recited at the time of sacrificial rites and other rituals with utmost devotion.
- It contains 1028 hymns and is divided into 10 Mandalas. Mandalas from II to VII are considered as earliest Mandalas ascribed to a particular family of Rishis such as Gritsamada, Visvamitra, Vamadeva, Atri, Bharadvaja and Vashistha. Mandalas VIII is attributed to the Kanvas and Angiras. IX is compilations of Soma hymns. Mandalas I and X are considered as later additions.
- The Manadas-X contains Purushusukta hymn which gives us information about the four varnas viz. Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishya and Shudra.
- The Third Mandala contains famous Gayati mantra composed by Visvamitra.
- Saraswati is the personified deity of river Saraswati in Rig Veda.
- Upanishads are either embedded in the Aranyakas or form their supplements. They are also found as independent works.
- They are revolved around the two conceptions of Brahman and Atman.
- The Upanishads marked a reaction against sacrificial religion and are highly philosophical, dealing with the ultimate truth and realty, knowledge of which would emancipate a man.
- They are the main source of Indian philosophy.
- They are also called Vedanta means the end of Vedas because they denote the last phase of the Vedic period and they reveal the final aim of the Vedas.
- They discuss various theories regarding the creation of universe and define the doctrine of Karma (action).
- There are 108 number of Upanishads out of which the most important are Mundaka, Jaittiriya, Aiteriya, Chandogya and Katha.
Q24. Later Vedic Pottery
- The later Vedic people used four types of pottery: Black and Red Ware, Black-slipped Ware, Painted Grey Ware, and Red Ware.
- The distinctive pottery of the period is known as Painted Grey Ware, which comprised bowls and dishes, used either for rituals or for eating by the upper classes.
Q25. Rig Vedic Society: Rural, Pastoral and Monarchical
Q26. Yajur Veda Samhita
- It deals with the procedure for the performance of sacrifices.
- The Yajur Veda Samhita consists of partly of hymns and partly of prose containing sacrificial formulae.
- It is divided into Sukla (Black) Yajur Veda, contains mantras and Krishna (Black) Yajur Veda contains commentary in prose.
Q27. Kapila- a form of Prajapati
Q28. Govisti: Fights for cow
Goghana: Cow killer means a guest
Q29. Gayatri Mantra: Rig Veda
Q30. Kalpa Sutras (Rituals)
- Shrauta/ Shulva Sutra- deals with sacrifices
- Grihya Sutra- Deals with family ceremonies
- Dharma Sutras- deals with varnas, Ashramas, etc.
- These are literary works of later vedic period.
- There are six Vedangas such as:
- Shiksha: Pronounciation
- Kalpa: Ritual
- Vyakarana: Grammar
- Nirukta: Etymology
- Chhanda: metre
- Jyotisha: Astronomy
|Events of Buddha’s Life||Symbols|
|Birth||Lotus and Bull|
|Great Departure (Mahabhinishkramana)||Horse|
|Enlightment (Nirvana)||Bodhi tree|
|First semon (Dharmachakrapravartana)||Wheel|
Q32. Challenge of the kshatriyas to the dominance of the Brahmanas
|First (483 BCE)||Rajagriha (Ajatasatru)||Mahakassapa||Vinaya Pitaka- Rules of Buddhist monastic discipline Sutta Pitaka- Religious discourse and saying of Buddha|
|Second (383 BCE)||Vaishali||Sahakami||Split into Sthaviravadini and Mahasanghika|
|Third (250 BCE)||Pataliputra (Ashoka)||Upagupa (Moggaliputa Tissa)||Abidhama Pitaka- Philosophical interpretations of the doctrones of Buddha|
|Fourth (First Century AD)||Kashmir (Kanishka)||Vasumitra||Buddhist divided into Hinayana and Mahayana|
Q34. Jainism glorifies self-mortification whereas Buddhism insiss upon the persuit of the Middle Path means the avoidance of extremes.
Q35. Vinaya Pitaka: Rules of Buddhist monastic life
Q36. Second Urbanisation: Rise of Urban centres in the Ganga Valley
Q37. 16 Mahajanapadas:
- Buddhist Text: Anguttara Nikaya
- Jaina Text: Bhagawati Sutra
Q38. First Buddhist Council: mahakassapa
Q39. Chedi: Sottivati or Suktimati
Q40. Important republics in 6th century BCE