Q1. Paleolithic age in India is divided into three sub-phases according to the nature of stone tools and nature of climate change as follows:
- Early/ lower Paleolithic phase (up to 100,000 BCE)
- Middle Paleolithic phase (100000 BCE to 40000 BCE)
- Upper/ Late Paleolithic Phase (40,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE)
Q2. Robert Bruce Foote (22 September 1834 – 29 December 1912) was a British geologist and archaeologist who conducted geological surveys of prehistoric locations in India for the Geological Survey of India.
Foote joined the Geological Survey of India (GSI) on 29 December 1858 was posted in the Madras Presidency, Hyderabad region and Bombay. In 1887 he became a Director of the GSI and on retiring in 1891, he joined the state of Baroda.
In later life, he settled in Yercaud where his father-in-law Reverend Peter Percival had worked and lived.
An interest in paleolithic life was inspired by the work of Joseph Prestwich in 1859. In 1863, the year after his archaeological survey began, he discovered the first conclusive Paleolithic stone tool (a hand axe) in India. He found the tool in southern India (Pallavaram, near Madras). After the discovery he, along with William King, went on to discover more such tools and settlements in Southern and Western India. In 1884, he discovered the 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) long Belum Caves, the second largest cave in the Indian subcontinent.
Foote spent 33 years (starting at age 24) working for the geological survey. He is often considered the “Father of Indian Prehistory”.
He died on 29 December 1912 and was cremated at Calcutta, his ashes were deposited at Holy Trinity Church, Yercaud, Tamil Nadu, India. There is a memorial to him there. Foote was a Fellow of the Geological Society, London from 1867 and a Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Institute.
Foote built a valuable collection as a result of 40 years of geological and pre-historic expeditions in various parts of western and southern India.
Foote’s collection of antiquities was all sold to the Madras Government Museum in 1906, where it is quoted to be a valuable treasure.
Q3. The oldest Neolithic settlement found in Indian subcontinent is Mehrgarh situated in Baluchistan, Pakistan which is attributed to around 7000 BCE.
The term Neolithic was coined by Sir John Lubbock in his book Prehistoric times, first published in 1865. The chief characteristics of Neolithic culture are:
- Practice of agriculture: Wheat, rice and millet
- Domestication of animals: Sheep, goat and cattle
- Polishing of stone tools
- Making of pottery: Black burnished ware, Grey ware and Mat-impressed ware
- Sedentary life
Q4. Paleolithic Paintings: Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh
- Paintings of Upper Paleolithic stage are done in green and dark red colours.
- They are usually large.
- Paintings are predominantly of bison, elephants, tigers, rhinos and boars.
- People lived in small groups
Mesolithic Paintings: Bhimbetka, Adamgarh, Pratapgarh and Mirzapur
- Hunting, food gathering, fishing depicted.
- Boar, buffalo, monkey and nilgai
- Sexual union, child birth, rearing of children and burial ceremony
- Organisation became more stable during the Mesolithic period.
Q5. Adichchanallur: Tamil Nadu (Thoothukudi district)
Q6. The fossils of early human being have not been found in India. But recent discovery of artefacts from Bori, Maharashtra suggests that human being appeared in India around 1.4 million years ago.
Q7. Adichchanallur: Urn Burial
Adichanallur is an archaeological site in Thoothukudi district in Tamil Nadu, India that has been the site of a number of very important archaeological finds. Korkai, the capital of the Early Pandyan Kingdom, is located about 15 km from Adichanallur. Carbon dating of samples excavated in 2004 from the Adichanallur site has revealed that they belonged to the period between 1000 BC and 600 BC. In 2005, around 169 clay urns containing human skeletons were unearthed that date back to at-least 3,800 years. In 2018, research on skeletons remains were dated at Manipur University to 1500 BC (+ or – 700 years).
Celt: Neolithic and Chalcolithic tool