Paper: General Studies Paper-I
Section: History of Modern India
Topic: History of India since 1857
Discuss the main objectives of the Indian national movement up to 1905. Enumerate its basic weakness during this period. (250 words)
Indian National Movement up to 1905 was mainly dominated mainly by the moderate leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, Wyomesh Chander Bannerjee, Firoz Shah Mehta, Dinesh E. Wacha, S.N. Bannerjee, etc. During this period, main objectives of the Indian National Movement were:
- To develop political agitations within the limits of law and by constitutional methods.
- To make the British Government aware of the Indian condition because they believe that the Britishers were and wanted to be just to the Indians.
- To build up public opinion in the country amongst people.
- To present public demand to the Government through resolutions, petitions, meetings, etc. and arouse consciousness and national spirit.
- To persuade the British Government and build up Britain’s public opinion in favour of India.
They believed that time was not ripe to directly challenge the British rule so they attempted to educate and unite people. They established a British Committee of the Indian National Congress in London and also started a journal titled ‘India’.
- The moderate leaders had no faith in the mass-movement and they could not popularise the ideas to the grassroots level.
- The movement was confined only to the educated class and illiterate Indians, who formed majority, were not able to participate in it.
- It was thought that the British rule was in India’s interest at that time.
- It was wrongly believed that the British Government wanted to be just to Indians and would consider to their demands gradually.
- The aim was to transform the colonial rule to a national rule.
Total words of Answer: 254 words
What administrative changes were introduced in India after 1858 to control India more effectively by introducing a new stage of colonialism in India.? (250 words)
After the revolt of 1857, The Government of India Act of 1858 transferred the control of India from the East India Company to the Crown. Now power to govern India was vested in the Crown through the Secretary of State who was responsible to the British Parliament. Thus, India came under direct rule of the British Parliament as a colony.
A provision was made in the Indian Councils Act 1861 for a Legislative Council but it was merely an advisory body.
Gradually, administration was decentralised and powers were given to local bodies, like municipalities and district boards, to overcome financial difficulties faced by the Government due to over centralisation.
To put counterpoise in the Indian army, the proportion of European soldiers to the Indian soldiers was increased. Not to give any key and strategic post to Indians, an old policy, was followed strictly after 1857. Indians were not promoted or recruited to higher posts in army.
Indians were intentionally restricted from civil services by making their entry very tough. The maximum age limit was further reduced to 19 years in 1878, under Lytton from the earlier of 23 years in 1858.
Princely States were given right to adopt heir, policy of annexation was abandoned but in 1876, the Queen adopted the title ‘Empress of India’ or ‘Kaisar-i-Hind’ and later on Lord Curzon made it clear to the Princes that they were only agents of the Crown.
Thus, after 1858 systematic administrative changes were made to control India more effectively by introducing a new stage of colonialism in India.
Total words of Answer: 261 words