Paper: General Studies Paper-I
Section: Geography of India
Topic: Social Geography of India
Examine the common problems of tribal communities of India and suggest the ways for their solution.
A tribal community may be defined as aboriginal or primitive resident of the mountains and hilly regions. The major problems of tribal’s are because of penetration of non-tribal in their life- spatially, economically and culturally. The physical constraints also act as check in their development process.
- Due to poverty, introduction of monetized economy and unscrupulous methods adopted by non-tribal’s land alienation has become a major problem such as in South Chhotanagpur.
- The problems of land alienation presupposed the problem of indebtedness. Identically wrong methods are adopted in both the cases.
- Physical constraints and topographic and climate inhospitality implies constricted production base-often resulting into food shortages and malnutrition.
- Unemployment is an additional problem because that can absorb population. Though industrialization of tribal areas has been taken up but employment opportunities have been grabbed by non-tribal.
- Urbanization and industrialization of tribal areas have created the problem of culture contact-that expresses itself into de-population, cultural decadence, breakdown of tribal social life and ethos and economic and psychological frustrations.
- Tribal’s constantly migrating to urban centers and this uncontrolled migration has introduced a lot of distortions in their lifestyle.
- No development project should be given clearance until it is rationally weighed against its impact on tribal’s
- Integration with the national mainstream and not assimilation should be the policy towards the tribal’s.
- There should be speedy and effectively stretching of education and health care facilities.
- Strengthening grass- root administration among tribes
- Effective implementation of laws curtailing land-alienation and indebtedness
- Special thrust to ameliorate the conditions of tribal women should be given
Bring out the salient characteristics of the migration patterns in India.
The Salient characteristics of the migration pattern in India are:
- Nearly 85 per cent of the intra state migrants were born in rural areas, while 63 per cent were born in rural areas in inter-state migratory category.
- About three-fourths of all migrants in the intra-state category were women; mainly because of marriages.
- Over half of the intra-state migrants moved from rural to rural areas. Such people migrated in search of employment, on farms or other establishments located in the rural areas.
- Rajasthan, UP, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala are the major areas from where out0migration takes place.
- West Bengal, Maharashtra, Assam, Punjab, Delhi, Chandigarh and Andaman and Nicobar Islands are mostly in migrating states or union territories.
- Disparities in economic development seem to be the main cause of migration in case of males and marriage in case of females.
- Densely populated rural areas with increasing pressure of population on land register out migration. Big cities, mining and industrial centers, plantation agriculture etc. are the main Pull factors behind in-migration.
- Comparatively small states had larger share of inter-state migrants in their populations. By contrast, larger states such as Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, UP displayed relatively smaller proportion of inter-state migrants.