OAS Mains-2019 Daily Answer Writing-21/05/2020

Paper:   General Studies Paper-I

Section:  Geography of India

Topic:  Social Geography of India

Question 1

Examine the common problems of tribal communities of India and suggest the ways for their solution.

Sample Answer

A tribal community may be defined as aboriginal or primitive resident of the mountains and hilly regions. The major problems of tribal’s are because of penetration of non-tribal in their life- spatially, economically and culturally. The physical constraints also act as check in their development process.

Common Problems:

  • Due to poverty, introduction of monetized economy and unscrupulous methods adopted by non-tribal’s land alienation has become a major problem such as in South Chhotanagpur.
  • The problems of land alienation presupposed the problem of indebtedness. Identically wrong methods are adopted in both the cases.
  • Physical constraints and topographic and climate inhospitality implies constricted production base-often resulting into food shortages and malnutrition.
  • Unemployment is an additional problem because that can absorb population. Though industrialization of tribal areas has been taken up but employment opportunities have been grabbed by non-tribal.
  • Urbanization and industrialization of tribal areas have created the problem of culture contact-that expresses itself into de-population, cultural decadence, breakdown of tribal social life and ethos and economic and psychological frustrations.
  • Tribal’s constantly migrating to urban centers and this uncontrolled migration has introduced a lot of distortions in their lifestyle.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

Way forward:

  • No development project should be given clearance until it is rationally weighed against its impact on tribal’s
  • Integration with the national mainstream and not assimilation should be the policy towards the tribal’s.
  • There should be speedy and effectively stretching of education and health care facilities.
  • Strengthening grass- root administration among tribes
  • Effective implementation of laws curtailing land-alienation and indebtedness
  • Special thrust to ameliorate the conditions of tribal women should be given

Question 2

Bring out the salient characteristics of the migration patterns in India.

Sample Answer

The Salient characteristics of the migration pattern in India are:

  • Nearly 85 per cent of the intra state migrants were born in rural areas, while 63 per cent were born in rural areas in inter-state migratory category.
  • About three-fourths of all migrants in the intra-state category were women; mainly because of marriages.
  • Over half of the intra-state migrants moved from rural to rural areas. Such people migrated in search of employment, on farms or other establishments located in the rural areas.
  • Rajasthan, UP, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala are the major areas from where out0migration takes place.
  • West Bengal, Maharashtra, Assam, Punjab, Delhi, Chandigarh and Andaman and Nicobar Islands are mostly in migrating states or union territories.
  • Disparities in economic development seem to be the main cause of migration in case of males and marriage in case of females.
  • Densely populated rural areas with increasing pressure of population on land register out migration. Big cities, mining and industrial centers, plantation agriculture etc. are the main Pull factors behind in-migration.
  • Comparatively small states had larger share of inter-state migrants in their populations. By contrast, larger states such as Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, UP displayed relatively smaller proportion of inter-state migrants.

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