Paper: General Studies Paper-I
Section: The History of Modern India
Topic: History of India since 1857
How did the movement for the liberation of women receive a great stimulus from the rise and growth of the nationalist movement in India. UPSC2001 (150 words)
In the beginning, the nationalist movement was mainly in the form of upliftment of society through socio-religious reforms. During this phase of socio-religious movements, Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidhyasagar, D. K. Karve etc. propagated widow-remarriage, female education, right to inheritance of women in paternal property, abolition of child marriage system and polygamy. In Muslim society, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan led reforms to remove ‘burkha’ system and polygamy besides preaching female education.
During the later phase of political agenda in nationalist movement, leaders actively opposed the British rule. Under Gandhi, Indian women had active participation in non-cooperation and disobedience movements. Women also started picketing shops and campaigning for swadeshi, thus widened their field of activities to the Indian political freedom movements. As the national movement became stronger, women like Sarojini Naidu acquired active leadership role.
The national movement, thus, played an important role in women liberation. (Total 151 words)
Discuss the aims and objects of the Khilafat Movement. To what extent was it successful? UPSC2001 (150 words)
Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) originated in India to support the Caliphate of Ottoman Empire in Turkey against the insulting treatment by the Britishers after the First World War. Sultan of Turkey was considered as Khalifa of Islam by Indian Muslims.
For an organised protest on the issue, Shaukat Ali and Muhammed Ali (Ali Brothers), Maulana Azad, Ajmal Khan and Hasrat Mohani formed a Khilafat Committee to change British attitude towards Turkey.
- Khalifa’s control over muslim sacred places.
- Sufficient territory for the Khalifa
Initially, the movement became successful as it also gained support of the Congress. Due to imprisonment of important leaders and withdrawal of NonCooperation Movement by Gandhi after Chauri-Chaura incident, its force faded away. The movement became irrelevant as Turkey itself moved towards secularism and abolished the Caliphat in 1924. The Khilafat Movement contributed to Indian National Movement by bringing HinduMuslim unity in the freedom struggle. (Total 152 Words)