Paper: General Studies Paper-I
Section: History of Modern India
Topic: History of India since 1857
“The emergence of new social classes in British India was the direct consequence of the establishment of new social economy, new state system, administrative machinery and Western education.” Discuss. (UPSC 2008 | 150 words)
After coming of British, India witnessed a new social order. A new, middle class, english educated social group came into existence. They were not loyal to British. They used the English education to create awareness among Indians. They prepared a platform for national movement.
A high-class, english educated group, which was loyal to British, was a small number of people. They joined either British services or were directly related to the ruling system. Similarly, Zamindars and Princes were loyal to British.
And the remained Indians were illiterate farmers and other small entrepreneurs. They get exploited either by the British or by Indians.
These classes were dominating the old caste-based division of Indian Society. Reasons behind these new classes were : British social policies like abolition of Sati, widow remarriage act etc. Economical changes also dragged people from their old-traditional village professions to urban industrial labouring.
Equality before law of the new judicial system wiped out earlier differences of Indian Society. Concepts of western education not only awakened Indians but also prepared them to research in their ancient history.
Concluding, it can be said that all new classes were direct result of British policies.
Non-Cooperation Movement gave new direction and energy to the National Movement.” Explain. (UPSC 2008 | 150 words)
Non-Cooperation Movement was launched by the Indian National Congress which brought Gandhi as the most influential leader of Indian politics.
This movement expanded goal of Congress to ‘Swaraj’ from ‘dominion status’. This movement brought out rural-common people in the national movement.
Henceforth, all classes of Indian Society started to take part in national movement. Its united goals with the Khilafat Movement gave a hopeful scene of Hindu-Muslim unity in Indian politics.
New national symbols like Flag, Slogan, Dress and Language were accepted. Now the working method of Congress changed. Vastness of objectives and simplicity of movement gave chance to all classes to participate. Even rural illiterate and farmers started to participate in National movement.
This was stopped by Gandhi after Chauri-Chaura incident. But this incident itself is an evident that people were fired by the national spirit.
Thus, a new energy and direction was given to the Indian freedom struggle by this Non- Cooperation Movement.