Paper: General Studies Paper-I
Section: Geography of India
Topic: Geography of Odisha
Describe the major physiographic divisions of Odisha
Physiographically, Odisha can be divided in to three broad divisions such as- the Coastal Plains, the middle mountainous country and Plateaus and rolling uplands.
The Coastal Plains: The coastal plains of Odisha stretch from the Subarnarekha in the North to Rushikulya in the South. They are narrow in the North, widest in the middle, narrowest in the lake chilika coast and broad in the South. The fertile tract of Odisha is known as “rice bowl” of Odisha. The plains are the gift of six major rivers. Because of the very nature of the coastline of Odisha, there is only one natural harbor in Odisha i.e Paradeep. It is the deepest natural port in the whole India which handles 20 million tons per annum.
The Middle Mountainous country: The mountainous region of Odisha covers about three-fourths of the areas of the state. This region is a part of Indian Peninsula. Here deep and broad valleys are cut by the Baitarani, the Brahmani, the Mahanadi and other rivers. They are fertile, well drained and thickly populated. The highest peak of Eastern ghats Deomali (1672m) is the highest elevation in Odisha.
Plateaus and rolling uplands: Rolling uplands are lower in elevation than the Plateaus. They vary from 153m to 305m. They are products of continued river action, are rich in soil nutrients and afford good opportunities for cultivation of paddy in wet areas. The higher plateaus are found in the mountain ranges with an average elevation of 300-600m. They have all the peculiarities of the peninsular tablelands. They are almost flat and monotony of the orographyis interrupted by the deep river valleys.
Discuss the major Gondwana Occurrences and their associated mineral resources of Odisha
The Gonwana systems are restructured to faulted troughs along the Mahanadi- Brahmani valley in Odisha. They occur in Sambalpur, Cuttack, Puri, Ganjam. Etc. districts. In Odisha the Talcher, Ib river and Athgarh are most important Godwana occurrences.
The Talcher Coalfields: It covers about 1813 sq. km and extend to the Rampur coalfileds in Sambalpur district. Talcher series are 150 mtrs thick. The coal seams constitute the series which is about 550m thick.
Ib river coalfields: These are popularly known as Rampur Hingir coalfields of Sambalpur districts. They are contiguous to Korba and Mand coalfields of Chhattisgarh and the Talcher coalfields of Odisha.
Athagarh Sandstones: A basin of Gandwana rocks extends south from Athagarh across the Mahanadi into Cuttack and Khurda districts. They comprise sandstones, grits, conglomerates and some white and reddish clays.
Some outliers of Gandwana rocks occur in the Khondamal hills in the Boudh districts where they rest uncomfortably in Archaeans.