Ecology deals with the inter-relationships amongst organisms and interactions between organisms and their environment. In other words, Ecology is the study of organism in relation with the surrounding in which they live. The surrounding is the environment or the living organisms and non-living things in the vicinity.
The term ecology is being derived from two greek words namely, Oikos meaning home or place to live in and logos means study. It means the study of the home of nature.
Types of Ecology
Autecology/Species Ecology: The study of reciprocal relationships between every stage of development of a population/species and its environment.
Synecology: The study of reciprocal relationships between composition, organization, and development of communities and their environment. It is further divided into Population ecology, community ecology, Biome ecology and ecosystem ecology.
Habitat Ecology: It studies variations in habitats in terms of their physical characteristics like topography, soils, insolation, temperature, water, minerals, weather and climate, etc.
Applied Ecology: The study of specialized field of ecology which are concerned with conservation and economic exploitation of organisms e.g. agronomy, agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, wildlife management etc.
Systems Ecology: It deals with interpretation of ecological concepts and processes in terms of mathematical models and formulae.
Genecology: Study of genetic composition and changes in relation to the origin of ecotypes, new species, etc.
Social Ecology: It is a critical social theory of American Socialist Murray Bookchin. It advocates a constructive and transformative outlook on current social and environmental issues.